Retrieval of supercooled water in convective clouds over Nagqu of the Tibetan Plateau using millimeter-wave radar measurements

1.Plateau Atmosphere and Environment Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225;2.State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100086

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The National Natural Science Foundation of China (91837310), supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1505702) , Beijige foundation of Jiangsu Institute of Meteorological Sciences (BJG201901), and Scientific Research Foundation of Chengdu University of Information Technology (KYTZ201728).

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    Supercooled water in convective clouds has always been a difficult point in meteorological sounding. In this study, based on Doppler spectra of a Ka-band millimeter-wave radar used in the third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Experiment and relevant radiosonde data, an algorithm for identifying and retrieving supercooled water in convective clouds over Nagqu of the Tibetan Plateau was proposed. Subsequently, retrieval effects of the algorithm were analyzed using two convective cases (including stratocumulus, cumulus congestus, and altocumulus clouds), and verified by comparing with measurements from a co-located microwave radiometer (MWR). Finally, the difference of results from the algorithm and other three previous methods were also discussed. The main findings are as follows: The stratocumulus, cumulus congestus, and altocumulus clouds over Nagqu are dominated by updrafts with rapid changes on the hydrometeor phase in the vertical orientation, resulting widely distributions of the formed supercooled particles in terms of both their , and . Supercooled particles in different convective cloud types also locate at different cloud body positions. The velocity of the in-cloud updraft is highly and positively correlated with the supercooled water , and LWC. They possess similar temporal variations and coincident spatial distributions. The retrieved spatial positions and microphysical parameters of the cloud supercooled water are consistent with the conclusions of previous studies and observations. The radar-derived LWP are also proved to agree well with the counterparts of MWR with similar temporal variations and value peaks. Their correlation coefficients can approach 0.63–0.79. Compared with three provious methods, results from the proposed algorim can be more reasonable on the retrieved supercooled water positions and parameters.

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  • Received:August 30,2021
  • Revised:March 03,2022
  • Adopted:October 09,2021
  • Online: February 28,2022
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