基于Ka波段云雷达对高原对流云垂直结构和微物理特征的研究
投稿时间:2019-03-12  修订日期:2019-08-13  点此下载全文
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作者单位E-mail
张涛 成都市气象局成都 610071 radar_zt@163.com 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 91537214 41705008 41605022国家自然科学基金(91537214,41705008,41605022)
中文摘要:毫米波雷达具有高灵敏度和高时空分辨率等特点,其在云-降水垂直结构和微物理过程的探测和研究中具有明显优势。本文对第三次青藏高原大气科学试验的Ka波段毫米波云雷达功率谱和雨滴谱仪资料提出了数据处理和质量控制方法,并计算了常用物理量和国内运用很少的物理量(谱偏度、谱峰度、粒子平均下落末速度、大气垂直速度)。应用这些物理量对2015年7月16日青藏高原(那曲)一次对流云-降水的垂直结构和微物理过程进行了研究分析。结果表明:(1)青藏高原地区的对流云在16:00-17:00发展到最强,具有和低海拔地区冰雹云相类似的结构;(2)同一对流云中,地面降霰前后,谱偏度由“正-负-正-负”结构变为负偏度为主,谱峰度由负值转为零值附近,云内粒子更趋于球形;(3)对流云中,强上升气流(≥6 m/s)贯穿-17~-7 ℃的过冷水层,冰晶与过冷水撞冻和淞附增长形成较大的霰,反之,上升气流较弱(≤4 m/s),淞附增长较弱,霰粒子较小;(4)对流云中,冰晶和霰的融化出现在环境0 ℃层上方的300 m区域内。,但回波“亮带”特征并不明显,
中文关键词:毫米波云雷达  功率谱  垂直结构  微物理过程  
 
A study on the vertical structure and microphysical characteristic of convective cloud and precipitation over Tibetan Plateau by using Ka-band cloud radar
Abstract:The millimeter-wave radar has obvious advantages in detecting and researching on the vertical structures and microphysics processes of the cloud-precipitation with its high sensitivity and high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper, methods for data processing and quality control were put forward according to the power spectral and raindrop spectrograph data from the Ka-band millimeter-wave cloud radar in the third Tibetan Plateau Experiment of Atmospheric Sciences Project. The usual physical quantum and the unusual quantum in domestic were also calculated, such as the spectral skewness, spectrum kurtosis, average falling terminal velocity of particles and atmospheric vertical velocity. These physical quantities were used to analyze vertical structures and microphysics process of the convective cloud-precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (Naqu) on 16 July, 2015. The results are as follows: (1) The convective clouds in the Tibetan Plateau were the strongest from 16:00 to 17:00 Beijing Time (BT) with similar structures as the hail clouds in low altitude. (2) In the same convective cloud, When it was graupel, the spectral skewness varied from “positive-negative- positive-negative” to negative; spectrum kurtosis varied from negative to zero; particles in the clouds were tend to be round,. (3) When the speed of updraft was greater than or equal to 6 m/s in supercooled water layer(-17~-7 ℃), the graupel particles , which were formed from ice crystal accretion with supercooled water drop and rimming growth, were larger than that less than or equal to 4 m/s, in the convective clouds.(4) In the convective clouds, ice crystal and graupel melt in the up-side region 300m above 0 ℃ level.
keywords:millimeter-wave cloud radar  Power spectrum  Vertical structure  Microphysical processes  graupel
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